Diabetes mellitus – Cause and prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 – One Health
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Cause of diabetes mellitus type 2
The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age, female sex and genetics. Lack of sleep has been linked to type 2 diabetes.
It is believed that this acts through its effect on metabolism. The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with a proposed mechanism that is the alteration of DNA methylation. The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been linked to type 2 diabetes.
Lifestyle factors are important for the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and overweight (defined by a body mass index of more than 25), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress and The urbanization. Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60 to 80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% in Pima Indians and islanders. Peaceful.
Among those who are not obese, a high waist-hip ratio is often present. Smoking seems to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of excess sugary drinks is associated with an increased risk.
The type of fats in the diet is important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids that increase the risk, and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats that lower the risk. Eating a lot of white rice seems to play a role in increasing the risk. It is believed that lack of exercise causes 7% of cases. Persistent organic pollutants can play a role.
Most diabetes cases involve many genes, and each is a small contributor to a higher likelihood of becoming a type 2 diabetic. If an identical twin has diabetes, the likelihood of the other developing diabetes in their life is greater than 90%, while the rate of non-identical siblings is 25 to 50%. As of 2011, more than 36 genes have been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.
All these genes together still only account for 10% of the total hereditary component of the disease. The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of common genetic variants. Most of the genes linked to diabetes are involved in the functions of beta cells.
There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of diabetes or "other specific types of diabetes"). These include early-onset maturity diabetes (MODY), Donohue syndrome and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, among others. Early onset diabetes of young people constitutes 1 to 5% of all cases of diabetes in young people.
There are a number of medications and other health problems that can predispose to diabetes. Some of the medications include: glucocorticoids, thiazides, beta-blockers, atypical antipsychotics, and statins. Those who previously had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Other associated health problems are: acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma and certain cancers, such as glucagonomas. Testosterone deficiency is also associated with type 2 diabetes
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