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It is a chronic or life-long illness in which there are high levels of blood sugar. Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans, and more than 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes (early type 2 diabetes).
A single measurement of high blood sugar levels is not enough to make the diagnosis of diabetes, unless the level is very high and also have symptoms compatible with diabetes.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and its function is to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, an insulin resistance, or both. To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal process by which the body breaks down food for energy. Several things happen when the food is digested. A sugar called glucose, enters the bloodstream. Glucose is the source of energy for your body. An organ called the pancreas (found in the upper part of your abdomen) secretes insulin. The role of this hormone is to move sugar from the bloodstream to muscle cells, fat and liver, where it can be used as fuel.
In people with diabetes, the body can not move the sugar to the right cells and store it for energy. This happens because the pancreas
does not produce enough insulin
The cells do not respond to insulin.
There are 3 main types of diabetes and the causes and risk factors are different for each type.
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