The term diabetes includes several different metabolic disorders that all, if untreated, result in an abnormally high concentration of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes mellitus type 1 occurs when the pancreas no longer produces significant amounts of the hormone insulin, usually due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the insulin-producing pancreas. In contrast, it is now thought that type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of autoimmune attacks in the pancreas and / or insulin resistance. The pancreas of a person with type 2 diabetes may be producing normal or even abnormal amounts of insulin. Other forms of diabetes mellitus, such as the various forms of diabetes onset at maturity, may represent a combination of insufficient insulin production and insulin resistance. A certain degree of insulin resistance may also be present in a person with type 1 diabetes.
The main objective of the control of diabetes is, as far as possible, to restore the metabolism of carbohydrates to a normal state. To achieve this goal, people with an absolute insulin deficiency require insulin replacement therapy, which is given by injections or an insulin pump. Insulin resistance, on the other hand, can be corrected by dietary modifications and exercise. Other goals of diabetes management are to prevent or treat the many complications that can result from the disease itself and its treatment. diet to reverse type 2 diabetes
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