Worldwide, type 2 diabetes is in epidemic proportions, with more than 300 million already having the disease, with an estimated increase of 600 million cases diagnosed by the year 2030.
Information on reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes is quite common. However, finding information about treatment and treatment for a person who already has type 2 diabetes may be somewhat more difficult.
Therefore, this article is designed as a mini bibliographic review, which points out some of the recent research on olive oil and its possible benefits for its use as a dietary intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a central mediator for dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetes. An in vitro study published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2016, investigated whether tyrosol, an antioxidant polyphenolic compound that It is found in olive oil, it could protect against the dysfunction of beta cells. The researchers found that tyrosol did in fact protect against cell death induced by ER beta cell stress, suggesting that it should be explored as a therapeutic agent to improve insulin resistance and diabetes.
Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the main contributors to the difficulties in maintaining control of blood glucose. A study published in Diabetologia, 2015, randomly assigned 642 patients to a Mediterranean diet enriched with olive oil (MedDiet) (35 percent fat, 22 percent monounsaturated fat) or a low-fat diet (less than 28). percent of fat) to determine if the diet effects of tissue-specific IR intervention and beta cell function. The study found that both diets improved the IR, however, the IR of the liver is improved more through a low-fat diet, while the IR of the muscle and the IR of the muscle + liver could benefit more from the MedDiet enriched with oil made of olives.
At this time there are no clinical trials evaluating the role of dietary patterns in the incidence of microvascular complications, such as retinopathy and nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. A post hoc analysis of a cohort of type 2 diabetic participants, published in Diabetes Care, 2015, shows that a MedDiet supplemented with EVOO can protect against diabetic retinopathy, a complication that leads to blindness, but not to nephropathy.
According to a detailed review of 2824 studies, published in the British Medical Journal, 2015, MedDiet consumption is associated with better glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors, even compared to a low-fat diet.
The clinical conditions associated with obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, show improvements with the daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). A study in mice published in The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2015, investigated whether dietary supplementation of CLA or EVOO could change the body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energy. The study found that although EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameters, combined with CLA protects against IR and liver enlargement, while CLA improves mitochondrial action and body metabolism.
According to research published in Biochimia et Biophysica Acta, 2014, oleic acid, an important biological component in olive oil, is a primary component of membrane lipids and helps regulate membrane structures by having the ability to incorporated into the phospholipids, which has several advantages cellular composition. It is also thought that membranes rich in oleic acid have a greater flexibility to promote GLUT4 glucose transport to cells and help to reverse IR induced by saturated fatty acids.
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