Bacterial Vaccines | Microbiology Online Lectures | Medical Student V-Learning


PRINCIPLE OF BACTERIAL VACCINES
In this conference, the educator explains about the Principle of bacterial vaccines. The first section consists of bacterial diseases, immunity against bacterial diseases and bacterial vaccines.

Bacterial diseases can be prevented by the use of immunizations that induce active or passive immunity. Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause infection. It is seen that less than 100 cause infectious diseases in humans. Several thousand species exist in the human digestive system. Tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, kills about 2 million people a year. Pathogenic bacteria contribute to important diseases worldwide, such as pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus and Pseudomonas.

Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis and leprosy. Pathogenic bacteria are also the cause of high infant mortality rates in developing countries. Active immunity is induced by vaccines prepared from bacteria or their products. Passive immunity is provided by the administration of preformed antibodies in preparations called immunoglobulins. Passive-active immunity involves administering both immune globulins to provide immediate protection and a vaccine to provide long-term protection.

ACTIVE IMMUNITY: POLYSACCHARIDE CAPSULAR
Section two consists of active immunity: capsular polysaccharide. She explains that active immunity is induced by vaccines prepared from bacteria or their products. Bacterial vaccines are composed of capsular polysaccharides, exotoxins of inactivated proteins (toxoids), killed bacteria or live attenuated bacteria.

Explains the examples of capsular polysaccharides that are the vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the vaccine Neisseria Meningitidis, the vaccine against influenza Haemophilus Influenzae, the vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. The vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae contains the capsular polysaccharides of the 23 most prevalent serotypes. It is recommended for people older than 60 years and patients of any age with chronic diseases such as diabetes and cirrhosis or with spleen function or splenectomy compromised.

TOXOID AND PURIFIED PROTEIN VACCINE
Section three consists of the toxoid vaccine, the purified protein vaccine, the mechanism of action. In this section, the educator explains that the vaccine against Corynebacterium diphtheriae contains the toxoid (exotoxin treated with formaldehyde). Immunization against diphtheria is indicated for all children and is administered in three doses at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, with reinforcements administered 1 year later and at later intervals. The Clostridium tetani vaccine contains tetanus toxoid and is administered to all people from the beginning of life and then as a booster for protection against tetanus. The Bordetella pertussis vaccine contains pertussis toxoid, but also includes other proteins. Therefore, it is described in the next section.

VACCINE ALIVE, ATTENUATED AND KILLED
In section four, the educator reports live, attenuated and dead vaccine. The tuberculosis vaccine contains a live and attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis called BCG and, in some countries, it is recommended for children at high risk of exposure to active tuberculosis. One of the vaccines against typhoid fever contains live and attenuated S. typhi. It is indicated for people who live or travel in areas where there is a high risk of typhoid fever and for people in close contact with infected patients or chronic carriers.

PASSIVE IMMUNITY
In section five, the educator talks about Antitoxins (immunoglobulins) that can be used for the treatment or prevention of certain bacterial diseases. The following preparations are available: Tetanus antitoxin is used in the treatment of tetanus and its prevention (prophylaxis). In treatment, because the objective is to neutralize any unbound toxin to prevent the disease from worsening, the antitoxin should be administered immediately. In prevention, antitoxin is administered to people inadequately immunized with contaminated ("dirty") wounds. The antitoxin is manufactured in humans to avoid hypersensitivity reactions. In addition to the antitoxin, these people should receive tetanus toxoid. This is an example of passive-active immunity.
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Duration of the conference: 01:20:05
Released: December 2017

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Video credits to sqadia.com YouTube channel





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    Bacterial Vaccines | Microbiology Online Lectures | Medical Student V-Learning

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